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A Meta-Analysis on the Effects of the Community of Inquiry Presences on Educational Outcomes in Online and Blended Learning Environments

Sun, April 11, 12:20 to 1:20pm EDT (12:20 to 1:20pm EDT), SIG Sessions, SIG-Online Teaching and Learning Roundtable Sessions


This meta-analysis examined 21 empirical studies on the Community of Inquiry Presences (Teaching Presence, Social Presence, and Cognitive Presence) and their effects on cognitive and affective educational outcomes. In this meta-analysis, CoI Presences had a medium effect overall on students’ cognitive and affective outcomes in online and blended learning courses. Cognitive presence had a large effect in comparison to teaching presence and social presence that had medium effect on both cognitive and affective outcomes. Five moderator analysis, publication source, level of study, instructional method, type of instrument and country when examined resulted in no significant differences. The findings have implications for designers and instructors who design and teach online and blended courses to include these presences.