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1) Violence Free Schools: Results of a systematic Literature Review and Consultation with Practitioners
Save the Children has been conducting a review and consultation on our work to promote violence free schools across the global south. The objectives of this process are to improve the effectiveness and evidence-base of our work and work of other NGOs in the sector, as well as to center the voices most marginalized and/or silenced: those local practitioners who work with children in contexts of violence across the southern hemisphere.
Main perspective or theoretical/conceptual framework:
Save the Children as a global organization is committed to violence free schools through two of its three breakthroughs or ambitions for the year 2030: “All children learn from basic quality education” and “Violence against children is no longer tolerated”. Save the Children is working with teachers, parents and communities on diminishing violence in schools so that the 246 million girls and boys who are harassed and abused in and around school every year can be in a learning environment that is safe and supports their development.
Analytical methods, research design, and modes of inquiry:
The key question guiding this report is: How can we best address violence in schools supported by Save the Children? The evidence presented will draw on findings from a variety of research methods- surveys and consultations with practitioners and communities from the South combined with a systematic evidence review.
Collection and analysis of survey and document data draws from mixed methods . We used triangulation design to strengthen the validity of the results by comparing the results from different methods, and assessing the extent to which they agree. We used quantitative and qualitative designs to measure the same concept of violence in and around schools across country contexts, including a survey, follow-up email questions with country office staff and document analysis.
We organize our evidence into four sources (1) Document and literature review (2) Survey (3) Follow-up interviews. (4) Consultation workshops with practitioners in the south. The document and literature review combines both a review of practice and policy documents from national and international NGOs and government agencies with an academic literature review using scientific databases and the online screening tool Rayyan. By combing stakeholder consultation, policy and practice lessons, and academic review, Save the Children hopes to develop an approach to school-based violence prevention which builds upon both academic rigor and the voices and experiences of practitioners and communities from the global South.
Results and conclusions:
Initial results from surveys indicate the most frequent type of violence in schools, as perceived by surveyed staff, was “bullying and peer violence”. The most frequent type of violence in the home was identified as “physical and humiliating punishment”, and the most frequent type of violence in the community was “sexual violence”. The consultation and literature review indicates two crosscutting priorities, namely the focus on sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and Keeping track: evidence, research and information, which cut across three building blocks for violence free schools- Setting rules; Building socio-emotional skills, and; responding to violence. It is hoped that the findings presented in this paper will form a strong base of evidence-based practice and practice-based evidence to inform programs to reduce violence in schools in different contexts around the world.